The 31-year-old, who plays for Everton in the English Premier League, will not join the squad in Dusseldorf ahead of Tuesday's match in Moenchengladbach, Football Federation Australia said in a statement.
Cahill has only played four league matches for Everton since returning from Australia's Asian Cup campaign in late January.
The Socceroos are looking to get a measure of revenge for their 4-0 drubbing by the Germans in their opening match at last year's World Cup in South Africa, during which Cahill was sent off.
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