"Vedran is a top-class defender with great skills and physique who can be a force in the air," Lokomotiv said on their website.
"He was a target of several European clubs but Vedran himself had made a decision to join our team. It helped us in our negotiations with Tottenham."
Corluka played three games at this month's Euro 2012, where Croatia failed to advance past the group stage.
The 26-year-old made 81 appearances for Tottenham after joining the London club in 2008 but spent the second half of last season on loan at Bayer Leverkusen.
He becomes Lokomotiv's first signing since compatriot and former Croatia boss Slaven Bilic was appointed coach of the Moscow club following Croatia's Euro 2012 exit.
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