Real's Cristiano Ronaldo is the holder of the world footballer of the year award and is joined on the list of 2014's nominees by team-mates Karim Benzema, Gareth Bale, Toni Kroos, Sergio Ramos and James Rodriguez.
The Spanish club's UEFA Champions League triumph, which saw them achieve 'La Decima', also earns Carlo Ancelotti a place on the World Coach of the Year shortlist.
World champions Germany, whose boss Joachim Low will compete with Ancelotti and eight others for the coaching gong, boast six players on the list, with Kroos accompanied by Mario Gotze, Philipp Lahm, Thomas Muller, Manuel Neuer and Bastian Schweinsteiger.
Lionel Messi, a winner three times in the last four years, features alongside fellow Barcelona forward Neymar and two other club-mates in Andres Iniesta and Javier Mascherano, while three Chelsea players - Diego Costa, Thibaut Courtois and Eden Hazard - also make the cut, as does Stamford Bridge boss Jose Mourinho.
There was no room, however, for Luis Suarez following his move from Liverpool to Camp Nou. The Uruguay striker returned from a four-month ban, dished out by the world governing body for biting Italy's Giorgio Chiellini during the World Cup, in Barca's 3-1 loss to Real in La Liga on Sunday.
The shortlists will be reduced to three in December, with the winners revealed in Zurich on January 15 next year.
FIFA Ballon d'Or shortlist:
Gareth Bale (Wales, Real Madrid), Karim Benzema (France, Real Madrid), Diego Costa (Spain, Chelsea), Thibaut Courtois (Belgium, Chelsea), Cristiano Ronaldo (Portugal, Real Madrid), Angel di Maria (Argentina, Manchester United), Mario Gotze (Germany, Bayern Munich), Eden Hazard (Belgium, Chelsea), Zlatan Ibrahimovic (Sweden, Paris St-Germain), Andres Iniesta (Spain, Barcelona), Toni Kroos (Germany, Real Madrid), Philipp Lahm (Germany, Bayern Munich), Javier Mascherano (Argentina, Barcelona), Lionel Messi (Argentina, Barcelona), Thomas Muller (Germany, Bayern Munich), Manuel Neuer (Germany, Bayern Munich), Neymar (Brazil, Barcelona), Paul Pogba (France, Juventus), Sergio Ramos (Spain, Real Madrid), Arjen Robben (Netherlands, Bayern Munich), James Rodriguez (Colombia, Real Madrid), Bastian Schweinsteiger (Germany, Bayern Munich), Yaya Toure (Ivory Coast, Manchester City)
FIFA World Coach of the Year shortlist:
Carlo Ancelotti (Real Madrid), Antonio Conte (Juventus/Italy national team), Pep Guardiola (Bayern Munich), Jurgen Klinsmann (USA national team), Joachim Low (Germany national team), Jose Mourinho (Chelsea), Manuel Pellegrini (Manchester City), Alejandro Sabella (Argentina national team), Diego Simeone (Atletico Madrid), Louis van Gaal (Netherlands national team/Manchester United)
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