Chiellini out for up to two months
The 28-year-old Chiellini underwent a scan on Thursday and while an exact timeline for a possible return is unknown, he could be facing up to three months on the sidelines.
"Unfortunately the calf injury has been confirmed and I have to stop for a while," Chiellini wrote on his Twitter page.
"But I am going to do my best to come back as soon as possible and stronger than before! Thank you all very much for all the messages for a fast recovery that you are sending me!"
Friday's match will take place at Parma's Ennio Tardini stadium after Cagliari's usual home ground, the Is Arenas stadium, failed to receive clearance from the local council.
Juventus are top of Serie A with 41 points, seven clear of the second-placed Inter Milan.