The Brazilian arrived from Botafogo in the close-season, but has failed to establish himself under Marcelo Bielsa.
Brazil's Under-21 captain has yet to feature in a senior game for the French club and will spend the remainder of the season on loan at the Estadio Cicero Pompeu de Toledo.
In a statement confirming the deal, Marseille explained: "Olympique de Marseille and Sao Paulo have reached an agreement for the loan of Matheus Macedo Doria until 30 June 2015.
"The temporary transfer is subject to a purchase option."
Get the best features, fun and footballing frolics straight to your inbox every week.
Thank you for signing up to Four Four Two. You will receive a verification email shortly.
There was a problem. Please refresh the page and try again.